雖然我們總希望盡可能地充分思考、審慎做決定，但面對大量的資訊、總是不夠用的時間，加上有限的心智容量，將所有可得到的資訊納入考量並不是件實際、可行的事。取而代之，我們憑藉著片面的資訊做決定，這讓我們能迅速做出選擇，然後繼續下一個工作。 As much as we would like our decisions to be thoughtful and fully considered, the large amount of information, lack of time and our limited mental capacity make it difficult to do so. To consider all the available information would not be practical or possible. Instead, we base our decisions on singular pieces of information.
我們正在進入閱聽眾測量（Audience Measurement）的第五個時代。為適應瞬息萬變的媒體環境，測量方式正重新地被校準，全面理解受眾的需求也達到高峰。同時，在這個時代，比起技術上的障礙，經濟與政治更是阻礙進步的因素。 We are entering the Fifth Age of Audience Measurement. It is an age where methodologies are being re-calibrated in response to a fast-changing media environment and where the quest for total understanding of audiences is higher than it has ever been. It is also an era where politics and economics are far greater barriers to progress than technical concerns.
網路廣告的存在，本應是要為了消費者與廣告主的共同利益，向消費者放送他們有興趣的廣告，並且更即時、更精準地與目標族群溝通。人們應該只暴露在與他們興趣相符的廣告之下，而且是在他們最願意接收廣告的時刻。而廣告主應該會減少浪費，透過精準地瞄準受眾和個人化的訊息投放超高效率的廣告。 The promise of online advertising was to deliver more relevant, timely and targeted communications for the mutual benefit of consumers and advertisers. People would only be exposed to ads appropriate to their desires and at the moments when they were most receptive, while advertisers would cut waste and deliver hyper-efficient campaigns through laser-guided audience targeting and personalised messages.
面對它風靡市場的情勢，大一點的品牌迅速反應，收購較小的啤酒製造商，然後發行自己的「手工」產品。較小的製造商因此開始質疑，如果大品牌有能力生產「手工」啤酒，那「手工」啤酒到底是什麼？它對整個產業的意義又是什麼？Bigger brands are reacting swiftly, buying up smaller breweries and launching their own ‘craft’ products. But it’s driving smaller producers to question; if large brands have the capability to create ‘craft’ beer, what actually is ‘craft’ beer, and what does this mean for the industry as a whole?